Fallopian Tube Problems: Blockage, Salpingitis, Hydrosalpinx

Fallopian Tube Problems: Blockage, Salpingitis, Hydrosalpinx


Fallopian tubes, also known as the uterine tubes and oviducts, are the female structures of the body responsible for the ova’s transportation from the uterus every month.

Eggs pass from the ovaries to the fallopian tubes and then to the uterus. As for the female reproductive tract, there is a single ovary and a fallopian tube on each side of the uterus. In the presence of sperm and fertilisation, the fallopian tubes take the fertilised egg to the uterus for the process of implantation to take place.

It is vital to note that the fallopian tube is essential for the female reproductive system. They are the direct pathways for the egg cells to go from the ovaries to the uterus. Hence, without these tubes or any disorders in them, it would be nearly impossible to get pregnant or carry a successful term.

The blockage of the fallopian tubes is one of the main reasons or causes that lead to female infertility. If any part of this tube is damaged due to an infection or a specific surgery, there could be blockage because of scar tissue.

Therefore, this article will discuss the different disorders such as blockage, how they affect the tubes, and when to seek medical help.

So let’s get started!

Fallopian Tube Blockage

If a fallopian tube is blocked, it is most likely that the passageway of the sperm reaches the eggs – and the way back to the uterus to the fertilised egg is blocked too.

Symptoms of Fallopian Tube Blockage

In most cases, blocked fallopian tube blockage doesn’t cause any alarming symptoms that one can catch on easily. Many women don’t even realise that they have blocked fallopian tubes until they go through the following:

  • Get pregnant
  • Problems regarding conception
  • Suffer mild to regular pain in the abdomen region

However, a blocked fallopian tube may cause some women to experience pain in the belly or pelvis area. They might have this pain during their periods, or it could be that this might be constant.

Sometimes, blocked fallopian tubes can lead to chronic to mild pain in one side of the abdomen. This type of blockage of the uterine tubes is better known as hydrosalpinx – a condition where fluid fills and enlarges the blocked tube. We will discuss this in-depth later in the article.

At other times, a blocked fallopian tube can cause a fertilised egg to get stuck, known as ectopic pregnancy. Women who believe they may be undergoing ectopic pregnancy – going through symptoms such as one-sided stomach and vaginal bleeding, then you must seek medical help immediately.

Causes of Fallopian Tube Blockage

There can be an array of reasons why some percentages of women end up with a blocked fallopian tube. Some of them are:

  • Have a history of issues in the pelvic region
  • Have contracted a sexually transmitted disease such as gonorrhoea
  • Have a history of surgeries performed in the pelvic area

Such problems can affect the fallopian tubes and cause scar tissue. These scar tissues, in turn, can block the tubes.


Salpingitis is the inflammation of the fallopian tubes and a type of PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease). It is regarded as the infection of the reproductive organs of the body. Such infections are usually a result of sexually transmitted diseases.

The inflammation caused can quickly affect the other tube, thus leaving both the tubes to be affected. If Salpingitis isn’t paid attention to, it causes long term complications in women. Hence, it is vital to understand and know the symptoms to seek medical attention immediately.

Symptoms of Salpingitis

If one happens to be affected by Salpingitis, it may be possible that it has no symptoms at all. However, some women go through symptoms such as continuous pain in the pelvic region, fever, and feeling unwell.

Salpingitis requires compulsory and immediate antibiotic treatment since it can transition into a chronic disease. If the other symptoms of Salpingitis happen to be present, they may include the following:

  • Abnormal vaginal discharge along with an unusual colour and odour
  • Spotting between periods
  • Painful sex, ovulation, and menstrual cycle
  • Fever
  • Abdominal pain on both sides
  • Lower back pain
  • Frequent urination

Causes of Salpingitis

Salpingitis is caused by bacterial infections that contract due to vaginal intercourse, but one is more at risk if:

  • They have had an STI before
  • They are engaging in sexual activities with numerous partners
  • They have performed unprotected sex

It is also essential to remember that Salpingitis can be acute or chronic. If one’s case is beyond saving, they face infertility, tubo-ovarian abscess, and ectopic pregnancy.


To make this easier – “hydro” means “water”, and “salpinx” means the fallopian tube. Hydrosalpinx is defined as a fallopian tube that is blocked due to a watery fluid. 

The fluid stays or accumulates there because of acute or chronic inflammation happening in the tube. The condition is normally caused by a previous infection of the pelvic region or a sexually transmitted disease.

Nevertheless, it can have a massive impact on a pregnancy term, as discussed below.

Symptoms of Hydrosalpinx

There aren’t many symptoms of hydrosalpinx to begin with. Most women don’t even know that they are affected until they can’t have kids since hydrosalpinx directly affects fertility. However, some of the symptoms that appear are:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Unusual vaginal discharge
  • Flu-like symptoms

Nonetheless, if one of the tubes has been affected with hydrosalpinx, it is possible to conceive with the other open one tube if it’s healthy. However, given the delicate environment of the uterus – hydrosalpinx will most likely affect it, causing a low pregnancy rate.

Causes of Hydrosalpinx

There are a bunch of several reasons as to why hydrosalpinx may happen. However, some of the commonest ones of them are listed down below:

  • STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections)
  • PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)
  • Recent abdominal surgery
  • Endometriosis

Again, ectopic pregnancy or constant pain in the pelvic region are indications that hint towards one possibly having hydrosalpinx.


It would be better to stay on the safe side and be updated about one’s medical history when planning a pregnancy. Even though blocked fallopian tubes can cause infertility in most cases, it is still possible to give birth and carry a successful pregnancy term.

 In most cases, the doctor would advise laparoscopic surgery. This is a surgery where the blockage is removed, and one would have better fertility. However, if the damage done is grave, IVF could also be an option to pursue.

In the cases of Salpingitis and hydrosalpinx, with early diagnosis and effective treatment options, they can fully clear out through antibiotics. Nonetheless, if left untreated, they can result in health complications such as ectopic pregnancy and infertility.

One must immediately contact a doctor or seek professional medical help if they happen to experience the symptoms mentioned in the article for some time being.


What is Ricin Poison? Castor Bean Poisoning Symptoms and Antidote

What is Ricin Poison? Castor Bean Poisoning Symptoms and Antidote

Castor beans are used to make castor oil, as they are the basic component needed. However, the main question is, what is Ricin? Also known as castor bean poison, Ricin is the waste product made when castor oil is produced.

Ricin is a highly potent poison found naturally in castor beans. If the castor beans are eaten and digested, they can cause fatal injury to the human system. It works by getting inside the body’s cells and prevents them from making any protein. Without the presence of proteins, the cells eventually finish. This, in return, snatches life from the system, resulting in death. There are many forms of this poison. It is found in powder form, a mist, dissolved in water, and mixed with weak acid. The lethal poison was discovered in 1888 by a German scientist named Peter Hermann Stillmark. It is one of the toxic substances known and is feared due to having the potential of being a biological warfare or as a weapon of extreme destruction. People can be affected by sniffing it, injecting it, or coming into contact with contaminated liquids or food.

Though it is infectious and dangerous, it’s not contagious. Even the symptoms of ricin poisoning depend on how much of it was taken and how it was taken (method of exposure). We will discover more about its symptoms depending on the type of exposure.

So let’s get into it!

Signs and Symptoms of Ricin

Ricin poisoning directly depends on the route of exposure and the dose taken. There are three types of exposure, meaning that there are three ways in which Ricin can enter a human body. These types are injecting, inhaling and ingesting. Thus, there are different symptoms for each distinct type. Generally, it is said that inhalation is a more lethal exposure than any other.

1. Ricin Poisoning by Injection

It is hard for Ricin to absorb through the skin, yet it can through under the skin, through the muscles and even through veins. As a result, one may feel swelling and discomfort where the poison has been injected. This is a rare case, but it can happen.

Nonetheless, if you have been injected with Ricin, you may have flu-like symptoms such as prolonged body aches, nausea, and puking. As time passes, the person infected will develop severe symptoms that can potentially cause life-threatening complications. 

More signs include diarrhoea, fever, and inflammation of the liver, pancreas, and kidney.

2. Ricin Poisoning by Ingestion

The commonest of ricin poisoning is by ingesting it. If you are exposed to ricin poison through foods and beverages, the initial signs may seem like food poisoning within an estimate of 5 or 6 hours. People, who have ingested it, are most likely to experience unbearable abdominal pain.

The abdominal pain will be accompanied by vomiting and diarrhoea at times. Due to diarrhoea, the infected person will also become dehydrated; hence they must maintain their water levels. 

More symptoms include blood in urine, intestinal bleeding, and seizures. Although ingesting ricin poisoning is less toxic than inhaling it, a sufficient amount and dose can cause death.

3. Ricin Poisoning by Inhaling

Inhaling Ricin is by far the most dangerous type of its poisoning. When Ricin is exposed through inhaled aerosol, it can easily affect numerous people in the surroundings. In a case with many people, they will experience the symptoms in about 7 to 8 hours.

People, who have happened to inhale the deadly poison, will face or go through symptoms such as high fever, puking, and severe coughing and congestion in the areas such as the throat and nose. In addition, these people will have breathing issues and a tight feeling in the chest. When exposed to a significantly long period, breathing difficulty can arise in 12 to 24 hours. If the affected person has a chest x-ray done, it might show excess fluid in the lungs.

Diagnosis of Ricin Poisoning

Once Ricin enters your body, it wrecks chaos in your immune system. Bodies of people who have been exposed to ricin poisoning show evident traces of the antibodies formed within two weeks following the exposure. Diagnosis of the condition may be made after the medical analysis of the body fluid or through a nasal swab. Unfortunately, this method of diagnosis isn’t available due to diagnosing tools not being clinically cleared for testing.

Treatment of Ricin Poisoning

Unfortunately, there isn’t a proper treatment plan or an antidote to recover from the poison’s effects. This is why one must take all the preventive measures necessary. If the poison somehow attacks a person, they should immediately seek medical help so that the toxin can be taken out or removed from their body.


Even though there are no definite solutions for the poison’s spread, there are ways through which each route of exposure is handled. Once you are confirmed that Ricin has poisoned you, seek medical help immediately. If you have ingested Ricin, it can lead to dehydration. Thus, the doctor will put you on IV fluids and control your blood pressure as it tends to rise. Your doctor may recommend pumping of the stomach if the ingestion is recent.

Ricin poison injected into a body can potentially harm your heart, liver, pancreas, and other vital organs. Such affected patients are needed to be constantly monitored and go through numerous tests. The fluid balance will be targeted by your doctor and hinder the inflammation of the organs. When the Ricin is inhaled, it causes damage to a cluster of people, which causes the same symptoms in them. Treating inhaled Ricin can involve chest x-rays to determine excess fluid in the lungs. Patients whose case is critical may also require the assistance of a ventilator. Your doctor can also give IV fluids to rehydrate.

Lastly, it is essential to understand that ricin poisoning can kill a person. It causes cell destruction, which can halt the significant functions of the organs, eventually leading to one’s death. If you are infected, kindly call your nearest health care facility or 911.

Phantom Pain: What Phantom Limb Syndrome Is and How to Deal With It

Phantom Pain: What Phantom Limb Syndrome Is and How to Deal With It

Phantom pain is described as the feeling of pain after a certain body part (specifically an arm or leg) has been cut off from the body. The degree of pain tends to vary from person to person. Though it is practically not possible and has been regarded more as a psychological problem, doctors have discovered that it might have something to do with the vital functions of the brain and spinal cord.

However, this article will focus on phantom limb syndrome, how to deal with it, and how to understand the important details that contribute to it as a condition. If you happen to have an amputated limb and still feel pain, you must discuss it with your doctor. Pinpointing the exact problem to a doctor or a health care professional will help diagnose the issue. In addition, since one can go through the same symptoms as phantom pain and phantom limb syndrome, giving the correct history will help your doctor develop an equally proper plan.

Therefore, let’s learn more about phantom pain and phantom limb syndrome.

Phantom Pain Syndrome and Pain

Phantom Pain Syndrome refers to the sensations that a person; who has had their limb amputated feels. The limb is missing, yet the pain is real and affects people accordingly. Most people who have their limbs removed claim that they sometimes feel as if the removed limb exists. They feel this way because the brain gets messages from the nerves located at the missing limb. Phantom Pain Syndrome or phantom limb pain is characterized as a medical condition. Patients suffering describe their pain as lasting for a prolonged time and that the prescribed medicine or treatment option has little to no effect on it.

Yet, the bright side for people suffering from Phantom Pain Syndrome or phantom limb pain is that it is manageable. Around 8 out of 10 people who experience this condition go through phantom pain.

Apart from phantom pain, there is another type known as Residual limb pain. If the patient is experiencing residual limb pain, that means the degree of pain afflicts the remaining area of the limb where it was amputated. Affecting around 7 to 10 people who go through limb loss, residual limb pain has a medical reason such as pressure on the nerves of that area and fatal nerve damage.

Symptoms of Phantom Pain

Being aware of the symptoms of phantom pain is just as important as getting to know about the causes. Most people have shared what phantom pain feels like. Phantom pain often feels like burning or aching, throbbing, stabbing or tingling. These symptoms could either be fleeting or continuous.

The pain is said to commence a week after the amputation. However, at times patients believe that the limb exists or is still attached and functions just fine. These are some of the main characteristics of phantom pain that portray themselves accordingly.

Causes of Phantom Pain

Now that we have an overview of the symptoms, Phantom Pain Syndrome and Pain, let’s discuss its causes and know why it occurs.

Phantom pain typically happens after a limb loss. Though the exact causes are unclear and not defined properly, it is said to result from some mix-up or emerge from the brain and spinal cord during imaging procedures – such as MRI and PET of the areas of the pain that are connected to the amputated arm or leg, display neurological activity when a person is suffering from a phantom pain episode.

Once the limb has been cut off from the body, ranges of the spinal cord and brain no longer receive any messages and thus adjust to it in its bizarre ways. Due to these attempts, pain is triggered as it is the body’s way of indicating something is wrong. Therefore, the brain tries to rewire itself and adapt to the new changes.

Several other risk factors are known to trigger the existence of phantom limb pain. People who haven’t had a limb removed can also develop phantom pain. Experts have claimed that people, who have had pain in the limb that has to be amputated, are most likely to feel it after the procedure. This is because their brain clings to the memory and keeps sending the pain signals, even after the limb has been removed. Residual pain limb, as discussed before, has phantom pain too. It has also come to notice that residual limb pain is caused due to an abnormal growth on the bruised nerve endings (neuroma) that tends to result in agonizing nerve activity.

More causes could be traumatic amputation, such as an accident, or the type of anesthesia used during the process. Nonetheless, some emotional factors come into play, for example, stress, depression, anxiety. Such factors can keep phantom pain alive.

Treatment of Phantom Pain

The treatment plan for phantom pain begins with over-the-counter medicines such as Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and others. Your doctor can even recommend antidepressants; however, it is important to discuss the dose and consumption of your medicines.

Another widely adopted option for phantom pain is non-drug remedies. Some of the options are Mirror Box-in this technique, mirrors are used to show that the limb still exists. This helps in relieving phantom limb pain. In addition, doctors use spinal cord stimulation to stimulate the spinal cord by inserting small electrodes (that pass a small current) to ease the pain.


Lastly, the risk of developing phantom pain is high if you’ve had your limb amputated; doctors recommend regional anesthesia days before the actual process. This reduces pain significantly and diminishes phantom limb pain.

Apart from the treatment plans mentioned, acupuncture, brain stimulation, and nerve surgery are available options that your doctor or a healthcare professional might recommend. It’s essential you know what you’re getting yourself in. Hence, it would help to talk to your doctor about all the variations you have been going through. Making the correct diagnosis will help you recover from your problem soon. It’s not a sign of worry if you suffer from Phantom Pain Syndrome. Since 8 out of 10 people have had their limb amputated, there will be an option that will fit your case. Hence, you must not panic and see your doctor immediately if you are going through any of the symptoms stated in this article.

What is STI Testing? Everything You Need to Know

What is STI Testing? Everything You Need to Know

STI stands for “Sexually Transmitted Infections.” Typically, these infections are passed from person to person. The spread of these infections happens when people engage in unprotected sexual activities. STI has also been known as STD, “Sexual Transmitted Diseases.” However, medical officers have decided to call them infections because these rarely have any symptoms, unlike when diagnosed with a disease.

If you happen to be sexually active and have multiple partners with whom you are engaging, you must get tested beforehand. Though these infections advance through vaginal, oral or anal sex, sexually transmitted infections can also spread through other mediums such as blood.  Despite having life-threatening consequences, some people are left untreated due to sexually transmitted infections being taboo in society. Unfortunately, STIs are not new and have been around ever since humans have existed on the planet. Nevertheless, the good part about this horrible situation is that these fatal infections can be treated if reported early. Thus, in this article, we will explore some different types of sexually transmitted diseases, ways to prevent them, and how the testing process occurs.

Types of Sexually Transmitted Infections

Before we discover and get to know more about the testing process of sexually transmitted infections, we must understand the various types of these infections.


Chlamydia is a common STI infection caused by certain bacteria. It doesn’t create any symptoms but can lead to numerous complications such as infertility and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. If symptoms appear, it can be a pain in the lower region or a green or yellow discharge from the vagina or penis. However, the bright side to Chlamydia is that it is treatable due to its bacterial nature. There is an array of antibiotics that can cure this infection. Some of them are Azithromycin and Doxycycline. No matter what medication is prescribed, you must always consult a doctor before in-taking any medication. Self-medication is never a good idea. You must also refrain from engaging in sex while being on your treatment plan.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Human Papillomavirus is a virus that, apart from sexual activity, can even pass from one person to another through skin contact. This virus has different strains that are quite dangerous. There are approximately 100 types of HPV, and 40 of them can attack you due to unprotected sexual activity.

HPV can fade away in a few years, but it can create numerous health problems if it doesn’t. The typical symptom of HPV is genital warts around the genitals, throat and mouth. This virus can also have its strains transition into several cancers.

There is no treatment available for HPV. However, vaccines are available for HPV 16 and 18.


Gonorrhoea is another bacterial infection that attacks the rectum, throat and urethra. In the case of females, gonorrhoea can also affect the cervix too. Like the other infections mentioned, gonorrhoea also doesn’t display any symptoms.

Some of the symptoms that get noticed are frequent urination and increased vaginal discharge. In men, there is a pus-like discharge from the tip of the penis. More include pelvic/abdominal pain, pain during sex and itching around the genital area.  Antibiotics can be used to treat gonorrhoea. It can pass from a mother to child during childbirth. Hence, mothers are advised to have themselves tested to remain protected.

STI Testing and its Types

a person holding culture swab and tube

Early detection can prevent STI rates from increasing, but the stigma surrounding sexually transmitted diseases stops people (especially under the age of 25) from getting tested. There are different kinds of tests conducted, but you must keep the following in mind. You should consider getting tested if you are starting a new relationship, you and your partner have multiple people you’re engaging with, and you haven’t been tested in a long time. 

Some common types of tests are stated below:

Blood and Urine Tests

Blood and urine tests are quite painless and don’t take much of your time. However, a blood test isn’t the best option in some cases. In infections such as HPV, the virus appears a month after being exposed.

Therefore, if you suspect you have contracted HPV, you might have to go a few times for it to reveal. Some STIs that have urine or blood tests are Chlamydia, HIV, Syphilis, and Hepatitis. Blood and urine tests do take some time for the results to come.

Pap Smears

A Pap smear test is a method of cervical screening that looks for any abnormal or cancerous cells in the cervix or colon. It is extremely helpful to indicate the earliest signs of cervical cancers. If you wish to get tested for HPV, don’t forget to mention it to your doctor. Pap smears don’t usually hurt; however, you must talk to your doctor beforehand to avoid complications.


Some doctors prefer the use of swabs when it comes to taking samples. Doctors or physicians use a cotton applicator to take cervical or vaginal swabs. Swabs are taken usually in a pelvic exam. Regardless of your gender, a doctor can take urethral swabs as well. Aside from slight pain, it is a quick and time-saving process.

Physical Exam

Some STIs, such as genital warts, can be helped through a combination of physical exams and some other tests.

In a physical exam, the doctor may look for bumps and sores around the genital area. If you happen to be engaging in anal sex, you must tell them if you notice any anus or rectum area changes. You must know that the doctor will try his best to ensure that you don’t feel any discomfort or pain during the process.


If you happen to test positive for the STIs mentioned or any other, it would be best not to let your emotions get the best of you. You might feel angry and ashamed at the moment, but remember that you saved your life with this initiative.

Once you have tested positive, you must talk to your doctor or a healthcare professional to develop a treatment plan immediately. It would be helpful for your other partner or partners (if more than one) to get tested too as soon as possible and save their lives. The bottom line is that if you are sexually active, then you must take all prevention precautions to avoid getting infected with any of the STIs, for example; wearing condoms, not having a large number of people you are engaging with, and getting tested before you indulge in any sexual activity or start a relationship. Remember that it is better to get tested than suffer from severe/lifetime complications.

Why Does Your Baby Have Red Eyes? A Parents’ Guide

Why Does Your Baby Have Red Eyes? A Parents’ Guide

If you didn’t know already, you must be aware now that red eyes are a common and repetitive problem in tiny babies. There are some reasons why your baby has developed red eyes, and to determine that, you must observe the potential signs and symptoms.

A visit to the doctor will reveal how mild or severe the case has been. Red and bloodshot eyes are a cause of concern, mainly if they have appeared despite your baby not crying or if they have been around for too long. Pinkeye (known as conjunctivitis), which we will discuss in this article, is mostly to blame for red, itchy eyes. However, other causes that manifest the appearance of red eyes can’t be ignored.

Hence, in this article, we will be exploring conjunctivitis and other reasons in great detail.


Conjunctivitis or pinkeye is quite common in babies, toddlers, and adults. It is a frequent case in babies, mainly because they tend to rub their eyes and touch anything within their reach. It is also best to remember that pinkeye can appear in either one or both eyes.

Simply put, conjunctivitis is the inflammation in the conjunctiva of the eye. The conjunctiva is the clear, thin membrane that lines the inner side of the eye and the outer coating too. It could be either bacterial or viral conjunctivitis. Usually, this condition resolves within a period, but sometimes it persists, instilling panic.


When it comes to the causes of conjunctivitis, there are multiple reasons why this condition tends to attack. Some of the significant causes of conjunctivitis are:

  • Entering a foreign object in the eye
  • Allergens
  • Incompletely opened or blocked tear ducts in babies
  • Irritating things (such as shampoos, dirt, chlorine found commonly in swimming pools)

If you have pinkeye that a bacteria or virus has caused, they are easily spread by shaking or touching other people’s hands. Even touching surfaces and not thoroughly washing your hands can cause the germs to pass or travel easily. For women, conjunctivitis can happen if they use old, expired makeup or apply it with unclean or dirty tools.


As mentioned before, bacterial conjunctivitis is very different from viral conjunctivitis. Viral conjunctivitis (better known as pinkeye) has symptoms such as red eyelids, watery, puffy eyes, and redness in the area where it is supposed to be white.

However, bacterial conjunctivitis is way more severe than viral conjunctivitis. A thick, sticky, yellow paste-like discharge comes through the eyes in bacterial conjunctivitis. Because of this sticky discharge, the eyelids and the eyelashes may stick together.

More symptoms include increased tearing and irritation, blurry vision, burning eyes, itchy and swollen eyes and increased sensitivity to any source of light.


For a doctor, it may be hard to reveal the real cause of conjunctivitis, but he’ll be able to diagnose the disease as per the child’s symptoms. The doctor may throw many different questions relating to the infant’s health.

Apart from the child’s health questions, the doctor may also ask whether your child wears glasses or whether anyone near the child has been exposed to pink eye. If your child has been suffering from the disease frequently, or if his symptoms don’t seem to tone down, then the doctor may send some samples to the laboratory for further investigation.

It is most likely that a vision test may be held to inspect whether the vision has been affected or not.


The first steps to treatment are some preventive majors that you as a parent must immediately take when your child is diagnosed with conjunctivitis (whether it is viral or bacterial). Foremost, it would be best if you avoided irritants such as smoke, pollen, and dust. These, along with other known allergens, must be kept out, and your child should be taken care of properly, as anything can trigger conjunctivitis at an increasing pace.Rinse the eyes properly with lukewarm water if the buildup gets too much around the eyes. Try cold compresses as that can aid in cooling the inflamed and swollen eyes. Even ice packs are a  good option for soothing those puffy eyes and the area around them.

If the baby isn’t comfortable with cold compresses, you can go for warm compresses. However, you must ensure that the compress isn’t scorching; otherwise, it may worsen the symptoms. Also, ensure that the compress is comfortably warm for the baby to put on the eyes. Moreover, it would be best to limit your child’s contact with others for a while. This way, there will be fewer chances of the disease spreading out. You can also put in instruction; your child cannot rub their eyes with their bare hands. Instead, you should teach the use of a clean cloth.

Other Causes Of Red Eyes

a toddler with pink eye

We must explore more causes as to why babies end up with red eyes other than conjunctivitis.

Frequent Rubbing

In small babies, this is normal and quite repetitive. However, since the skin around the eyes is the most delicate and tends to rub real hard and deep, it can cause veiny and red eyes. If this is a habit that your baby has just picked up, then you either try mittens or wait for it to resolve.

Allergic Conjunctivitis

As the name goes, allergic conjunctivitis causes teary, red, and irritating eyes. This can occur due to any irritants that bug the eye and cause the conjunctiva to swell. Due to the allergic reaction, this can cause red eyes, but typically that is not the case.

Corneal Abrasion

A corneal abrasion is a superficial scratch on the cornea. It can happen due to dust, sand, dirt, contact lenses or even a tiny paper corner. Some of the signs that point that your baby has corneal abrasion are pain, teary eyes, and sensitivity to light.


Babies are a source of worry with almost anything they do. Though redness around the eyes is a common problem, it would be better to visit the doctor to avoid any complications if it doesn’t sit right in a few days. Or if your little one seems to be in discomfort, then you shouldn’t ignore it.

Parenting a Child with ADHD: Helping Your Child

Parenting a Child with ADHD: Helping Your Child

ADHD or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a complex condition defined as a common neurodevelopmental disorder among children. It affects about 6 to 8% of them and is diagnosed in early childhood, later progressing into adulthood. Being a chronic condition, it involves an individual’s emotions and feelings.

Children suffering from ADHD struggle to pay attention, act impulsively or in the heat of the moment, and are pretty active. As a parent, it is hard to look after your kid as you never know what triggers them. However, some parenting strategies can aid in creating a balance in your child’s activity. But before we discuss that, the parents of these kids need to understand that kids diagnosed with ADHD tend to function differently. Consulting medical help will indeed do wonders, but it is essential that they put in some effort for their kids’ wellbeing as well.

In this article, we will look at signs, symptoms, and ways to how you as a parent can help your child suffering from ADHD.

Causes of ADHD

When it comes to the causes, all that can be stated is that doctors and scientists are still trying to discover better ways to reduce the chances of having this disease. However, it is believed that children tend to develop conditions such as ADHD because of a few risk factors such as any brain injury, the consumption of lethal substances, i.e. tobacco, smoking and alcohol, any environmental dangers, and more.

Though there is controversy about whether in-taking sugar can cause ADHD in children, this is not the case. Although factors like family chaos, in-taking sugar, social and environmental issues, and watching too much television can worsen the ADHD symptoms and signs, there isn’t enough evidence to suggest that these factors cause ADHD in children.

Types of ADHD

There are three types of ADHD categorized: Inattentive type, Hyperactive-impulsive, and Combination type.

The first type of ADHD is the Inattentive type. In this type, it is complex for a person or child to stay focused on a single task for an extended time. They lack organizing skills and tend to get distracted or go off the path most of the time. Such types of people also tend to forget their daily routines.

The second type of ADHD is the Hyperactive type. The hyperactive type is where an individual has trouble staying on a specific task. These people tend to fidget and talk a lot. It is also difficult for these people or children to remain still while eating or speaking. Children specifically jump and run. Such people have problems with their impulsivity and feel restless. Since these people are impulsive, it is evident that they act out of the accord. Keeping that in mind, it is most likely that these people may hurt others.

The third type is the Combined type. This type involves the mix of type one and type two and are equally present in the individual.

Symptoms of ADHD

Stay assured that it is normal for kids not to focus or have trouble doing so at times. However, for a kid with ADHD, his symptoms don’t stop. Instead, they get more severe as time goes on. As a result, a child with the condition may daydream a lot, talk too much, make unnecessary mistakes, and would be unable to resist temptation.

Apart from those, kids with ADHD also find it difficult to get along with others. You may feel like these symptoms are bound to appear with kids without ADHD, and yes, they do. But, they fade along with their growing phase. Remember that with kids who have ADHD, these signs only seem to become stronger and more frequent.

Tips For Parents To Deal With ADHD

mother and son drawing together

Before you get down to go through all the tips and techniques mentioned in this article, you must maintain patience, steadfastness, and a positive outlook on the current position. It is not your fault, either the child’s fault. You’ll have to deal with this situation with much love and understanding.

Bear in mind that now that you have a particular child, you’ll have to make some unique rules and regulations for the household. The traditional raising method will have to alter a bit now. 

With that being said, let’s look at those ways stated below.

Make a Routine

For children with ADHD, you must have a daily routine that they stick to regularly. You must ensure that all the family members are mentally ready to follow through and know how the day will unfold. It is equally vital to create a structure of principles for your child. 

Establish proper rules and give a task to each of your children. Simple tasks such as making bed, folding clothes, and putting the dishes in place can form the basic structure.

Ensure to Organise

Create a safe, happy, and unique place for your child to study, read, and more. Everything in the house should have its place. Having a place for all the belongings plays a massive role in instilling that sense of calmness in their environment. 

Keeping the surroundings neat and clean will help in not triggering symptoms of ADHD. Try not to lash put on your child, and remember to take small pauses from time to time.

Cut off Distractions

At this point, you should be fully aware that distractions are like wildfire to the symptoms of ADHD. Not only do distractions disturb one’s focus, but kids with ADHD are quickly invited. It will help if you put limitations when it comes to using electronic gadgets too. Giving time to activities that pump energy and encourage kids to do their best will aid in toning down the severity of ADHD symptoms.

Encourage Breaks

You can’t be rooting for your kid 24/7. It is pretty understood that at some point, you’ll need me-time or breaks as much as your kid needs it. As a parent, planning a schedule matters too. If you happen to be dealing with one of your child’s temper tantrums or are feeling suffocated, it would be nice to take a stroll, hit the gym, or read your favorite book.


Parenting a child with ADHD is a difficult job. You’ll need to make sure that you don’t let the disorder or your child take control of the situation. Be patient and follow the techniques stated in the article. You’ll notice a difference soon, and nothing will make you happier. Hopefully, you found this article helpful.